Gender in public transportation

Despite many challenges facing women in Jordan, the incapacitated public transportation system stifles their economic empowerment, as this sector has not been studied from a gender perspective. This report examines structural and behavioral gender issues and practices facing women commuters on public transportation. The main objective of this part of the report is to identify best global practices, while also considering key factors such as punctuality, availability, routing, safety, affordability, and user-friendliness, in order to generate gender-specific solutions. The report also studies how public transportation constrains access to work, education, health, social services, and other governorates in Jordan. Furthermore, the report describes women's travel patterns not only in Amman, but also in other cities by documenting their practices and experiences. These experiences include accessibility, mobility, time spent on buses, cost in relation to income, familial and societal outlook of female commuters, comfort level using public transportation, dress code, preferred method of transportation, interactions at bus stops and depots, and interactions or relations with other public transportation users and bus/taxi drivers. This study is the first of its kind in underscoring this pressing issue aimed at providing information to policy makers, civil society organizations, women's groups, and stakeholders in Jordan. Furthermore, the study seeks to help advocacy groups and community-led campaigns by contributing to public discourse and amplifying women's voices in transportation planning and practices. The findings will serve to make women's transportation a public issue worthy of attention, discussion, and action through the adoption of gender-sensitive transport strategies. ...


Hassan Rohanis Drahtseilakt

Ein Jahr nach Beginn seiner zweiten Amtszeit steht Irans Präsident Hassan Rohani

am Scheideweg. Seine bedeutendste politische Errungenschaft, die Wiener Atomvereinbarung

aus dem Sommer 2015, droht zu zerfallen, das Vertrauen in seine

wirtschaftspolitische Kompetenz ist gesunken und der innenpolitische Machtkampf

spitzt sich zu.


Better Together

The E3 – comprising France, Germany, and the UK – has become a cornerstone of international

diplomacy towards Iran. In 2003, the E3 initiated negotiations with Tehran

to address the crisis over the Iranian nuclear issue, and was subsequently joined by

the EU, as well as world powers China, Russia, and the US (altogether forming the E3/

EU+3). After years of nuclear diplomacy and international sanctions, the Iran nuclear

deal – the so-called Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) – was concluded in

July 2015. The E3 enabled the EU to play a fundamental role in a major political issue,

thus also triggering the support for the initiative by non-E3 countries within the EU.


The Water-Energy Nexus in Iran

Around the world, electricity generation requires water for cooling, running turbines, cleaning processes and power plant operation. Accordingly, the globally increasing demand for electricity produces a growing demand for water. Particularly in Iran, and other parts of the Middle East and North Africa, diminishing water resources are very likely to adversely affect not only the primary energy production, but also the operation of electricity generation capacities, putting energy security at risk while jeopardizing the region’s social and economic development.


Decentaralized Solar in Jordan

Decentralized solar has the potential to support an easy and fast deployment of renewables in Jordan; thanks to it’s modularity and it’s small size it can be easily integrated into urban areas. It enjoys lower costs of capital and shorter constructions times compared with utility-scalle installations. It can or may occupy unused spaces on rooftops and buildings, therefore avoid issues with acess to land enjoy high levels of public support.


Recommendations on E-Mobility in Jordan

Based on a delegation trip to Germany in May 2019 The following report was prepared by the Regional Project of Climate and Energy Policy of Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) and is based on the discussions and recommendations concluded from the Jordanian and Egyptian delegation “The Electrification of Private and Public Transport – Resemblances, Differences and Common Challenges” to Berlin 6-9 May 2019.


Short Term Fixes for Long Lasting Troubles: Why IMF Reforms Won’t Solve Egypt’s (Political) Economic Problems

Economic opening and market-based development have dominated Egypt’s economic policy for the last four decades. The economy has grown, but little has been achieved to improve the economic situation of most Egyptians. In the aftermath of the popular uprising of 2011, the international community, international financial institutions, such as the IMF and Egypt’s creditors have aimed to quickly restore economic growth. This has been done mainly at the expense of real and lasting development for Egyptians. However, as Amr Adly argues in this paper, without understanding and addressing the lasting troubles of the Egyptian economy no real development is possible. If this situation persists, international institutions and foreign donors will be called back to safe the economy – like many times before.


The power resources approach in the MENA region

The main objective of this paper is to present the “Power Resources approach” and explain the potential and the constraints as well as possibilitie for Trade Unions to revitalize. The revitalization of trade unions means also changes in energy and attitudes in addition to knowledge. The Power Resoucres Approch identifies four power resources that can be collectively mobilized by trade unions: associational power, structural power, institutional power and social power. The Power Resources Approch was developed in the Global North but will it work also in non-democratic societies in the Global South. The paper offers some answers and and try to initiate a discussion about the transformation of trade unions in the MENA region.


Rapport de formation des points focaux des syndicats membres du Réseau Syndical Migrations Méditerranéennes – Subsahariennes (RSMMS)

The workshop with representatives from RSMMS, taking place in Tunis the 6th - 8th of October, aimed to nourish a coordinated inter-regional approach, with the aim of:

- harmonizing the action plan;

- strengthening the presence of unions in the field;

- operationalizing the objectives of the "Casablanca Declaration" that is the founding document of the RSMMS (August 8, 2014).


Analyse critique du Pacte mondial pour des migrations sûres, ordonnées et régulières, à la base du Plaidoyer du RSMMS

This work provides a critical analysis of the development process of the "Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration – PMM”. It’s part of RSMMS Advocacy (January 2018) allowing to assess a common voice of the RSMMS members in relation to the PMM. The work was done with the support of the PROMIG-FES project (2017-2020).



Department for Middle East and North Africa
FES Berlin
Hiroshimastraße 28
10785 Berlin


About FES 

The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung has a network of eleven country offices in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and implements projects in a total of 14 countries. Some offices, such as Egypt or Sudan, look back at a history of more than 40 years of cooperation.

Offices in the Region

Digitalized publications of Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung

If you are interested in accessing all digitalized publications of Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, please visit the FES Digital Library. Please feel free to contact us if you are interested in a specific publication.

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Photo: FES Tunisia


Enabling Women in Sustainable Energy Field: A Step towards Sustainable Communities

FES conducted a workshop brought together a diversified mix of regional and international speakers and panelists from six countries in the MENA...


Enabling women in Sustainable Energy Field: A step towards sustainable communities” workshop

We are excited to share our amazing speakers for our upcoming side event to the IBEF on the 25th September in Beirut! The Regional Climate and Energy...